For your engine to run smoothly, there needs to be a precise amount of fuel feeding the engine cylinders. Fuel consumption is affected by the load on the engine and this will fluctuate when driving.
If your engine is running rich, the ECU will usually pick up on this and engine error codes will be stored in the ECU memory. But what happens if the engine is running rich but there are no codes? What causes this and how do you figure out what the source of the problem is?
Common causes of an engine running rich with no codes are old or worn oxygen sensors, faulty ignition coils, leaking fuel injectors, bad spark plugs or a bad engine thermostat.
Too much fuel entering the engine is a common engine fault that messes up the fuel to air ratio in the combustion cycle. It usually leads to problems such as engine misfiring, bad fuel economy and damage to engine components and the catalytic convertor.
Why is my engine running rich with no engine error codes?
If your engine is running rich, it is usually caused by too much fuel getting into the cylinders, or fuel entering the cylinders at the wrong time.
The cause of too much fuel is therefore usually linked to one or more bad engine sensors, or fuel leaking under pressure into the engine because of a problem with the fuel delivery system.
It’s worth noting that a lack of sufficient air being sucked in through the intake manifold can also cause an engine to run rich, but this can usually be adjusted by the ECU and the engine is more likely to cut out than run rich with a lack of air.
Here are some of the reasons why your engine might be running rich with no error codes present.
Reason 1. Bad O2 Sensors
A common cause of a rich running engine are bad O2 sensors. O2 or oxygen sensors are fitted to the exhaust of your car to monitor the efficiency of the combustion of fuel when the engine is running.
This is done by creating an electrical signal that is generated by the flow of oxygen in the exhaust fumes into the oxygen sensor where it is compared with the oxygen concentration with outside air. The difference in oxygen levels generates a voltage that can be interpreted by the ECU.
O2 sensors wear out over time due to their constant exposure to really high temperatures and contaminants in the exhaust fumes. This will adversely affect their sensitivity and ability to generate an accurate voltage, and reading of oxygen levels in the exhaust waste.
If an O2 sensor is worn but hasn’t failed completely, this can lead to an engine that runs rich but is still operating within the normal range expected by the ECU and therefore no error codes will be stored.
Reason 2. Bad ignition coil
Another common reason for an engine that appears to run rich is a bad ignition coil. Ignition coils are positioned on each cylinder and are there to convert the battery voltage to a much higher voltage needed to fire the spark plugs.
A bad ignition coil will cause a cylinder to misfire if it doesn’t activate the spark plug enough or in sync with the timing of the engine and the other cylinders.
This will affect the combustion of fuel in the affected cylinder, leading to a reduction in power output, lower fuel economy than expected and unburnt fuel residue in the exhaust fumes.
All of these symptoms point to an engine that is running rich, even though the problem is in fact a lack of proper combustion due to a problem with the fuel ignition.
Ignition coils can start to fail if there is a problem with the internal wiring coils and their insulation. They may still generate a high voltage output but this can be erratic and may not be high enough to generate a sufficient spark.
Reason 3. A Bad Fuel Injector
A bad fuel injector can also cause an engine to run rich if it is leaking fuel into the engine cylinder when it is supposed to be shut off.
Fuel injectors need to deliver an exact, aerated spray of fuel into the engine cylinder at precise intervals in the combustion cycle. They need to operate precisely and any deviation from this will cause engine performance issues.
One of the ways that fuel injectors can fail is if it no longer opens or closes properly. If an injector tip becomes sticky this will cause fuel to leak in to the cylinder when it is not supposed to. This problem may not be picked up by the ECU if there are no external leaks or electrical issues with the injector.
Fuel entering the engine cylinder at the wrong time will not be ignited correctly and can lead to an engine that appears to be running rich.
Reason 4. Bad Spark Plugs
Bad spark plugs can also cause an engine to run rich, and depending on how much engine performance is affected, they may not trigger any error codes or the check engine light.
Spark plugs have a limited lifespan and their performance will deteriorate over time, causing a reduction in engine power and the proper ignition of fuel.
However, spark plugs can also become contaminated or damaged by a badly running engine and this can also affect their ability to spark properly when powered up. If they are the cause of fuel not burning thoroughly, or not at all, then this will lead to the engine running rich as the ECU tries to compensate for the badly performing spark plugs.
Reason 5. A Bad Engine Thermostat
A very common cause of an engine that runs rich but with no error codes is a failing engine thermostat. The engine thermostat is like a gate valve that controls of the temperature of the engine by restricting or allowing engine coolant to flow around the engine.
When an engine first starts and is cold, the ECU will modify the fuel mixture so that more fuel is pumped into the cylinders and the engine runs richer than normal.
This is because cold fuel does not aerate and ignite as easily as hot fuel and therefore the engine is more likely to misfire or cut out.
As the engine warms up, the ECU needs to cut back on the amount of fuel so that the warm engine continues to run efficiently. It relies on information from the coolant temperature sensor and the engine oil temperature sensor to know when to adjust the fuel ratio to reflect the current engine requirements.
If the engine thermostat is faulty then it may stay open resulting in the engine operating at a lower than necessary temperature. This will lead to the engine running richer than it should.
Most of the time an error code will not be triggered and it may only be detected by tracking the engine temperature when the engine is running.
What Next – How To Fix Engine Running Rich No Codes
When it comes to finding the source of engine problems, the best place to start is by running an engine diagnostic, but if no error codes show up then where do you start?
The tell tale signs of an engine running rich are often subtle. They can include a strong smell of unburnt fuel from the exhaust, bad fuel economy from the engine, even on long drives at motorway cruising speeds. Sometimes the engine may misfire when accelerating hard or it may be difficult to start or it may have a rough idle.
- Check engine performance parameters using diagnostic equipment. If you have access to engine diagnostic equipment then the best place to start is by checking from problems with the engine when it is running. Monitoring parameters such as fuel flow rate, oxygen sensor readings, fuel pressure under varied conditions and air flow volume and rate can help to pinpoint the source of the problem.
- Change fuel and air filters. A blocked fuel filter or a blocked air filter can both adversely affect the fuel mixture when the engine is running. Check the condition of both of these filters and change them as a precaution.
- Check the fuel injector tips. It’s a good idea to have the fuel injectors checked and cleaned to ensure they are running properly. A partially blocked or sticky injector tip can cause an engine to leak fuel and run rich.
- Check the condition of the spark plugs. Remove each spark plug and check for wear or damage. An engine that is running rich will leave black soot and carbon deposits in the engine cylinders and on the spark plug tips. If the spark plugs are worn out or faulty, they may be the cause of the engine running rich to begin with. Spark plugs are relatively cheap and easy to replace so changing them may solve the problem.
- Check the engine thermostat. Check the engine temperature and engine thermostat using the appropriate diagnostic equipment. If there are no error codes then this probably rules out a problem with the engine temperature sensor. Track the engine temperature and ensure the engine is reaching the desired level. If the engine is running colder than it should after 15 to 20 minutes then try swapping out the engine thermostat to see if it fixes the problem.